This directory containes particle trace display for low energy proton primaries. The page is intended to show how muons and neutrinos are generated for pedagogical use. The correspondence between track color and particle spices is as follows:(Note this is different from the one for pictures in other directories)(Charge difference is neglected)
gamma blue
e+/e- magenta
mu+/mu- yellow
pi+/pi- green
proton white
neutron gray
electron neutrino red
muon neutrino cyan

A) Incident=100 GeV vertical proton. Emin=10 MeV.

The tracks are followed down to the sea level. In the pictures, white squares are embeded to show their scale. There are 4 such ones: the edge size is 10 m, 100 m, 1 km, and 10 km from the top to bottom. The smaller ones are seen only in the enlarged pictues.

Event 1. The first collsion point is at ~ 15.9 km a.s.l.
Whole picture10 km (0 m a.s.l) and 1 km (5 km a.s.l) squares are seen.
Around the first collision point.
(15.85km) Pions (green) are seen which are to decay into muons (yellow) and muon neutrinos (cyan). A 10 m square is seen.
Around 15 km. We see two muons are decaying into muon neutrinos, electron neutrinos (red) and electrons (magenta). A 100 m squre is seen.
Around 7 km. electron-photon cascade is developing in the core part. Mouns are decaying and we see a lot of electron neutrinos at this level.
Around 5 km. A 1 km squae is seen.
A mpeg movie shows all of these featues at once.( ~ 20 MB )
Event 2. The first collision point is at ~ 28 km a.s.l.
Whole picture10 km (0 m a.s.l) and 1 km (10 km a.s.l) squares are seen. A small white dot on the proton track at 20 km a.s.l is the 100 m square.
Near the first collsion point10 m square is seen. Two pions decay into muons and muon neutrinos.
Muon decay
Middle wayProton makes a second main collision. 1 km square is seen at the bottom.
A movie to show all of these featues (~20 MB).


These are shown in the form of directory listings.
B-1) The primary proton energy (E0) for p1-....jpg to p5-....jpg is 35 GeV. The minimum kinetic energy (Emin) for secondary particles is 5 MeV.

B-2)E0 for p11-..jpg and p12-...jpg is 1 TeV. Emin = 1GeV.

B-3) E0 for p21-..jpg p27-..jpg is 100 GeV. Emin=10 MeV

The produced charged pions (green) (and some kaones) can run very short as compared to the total height which is around 15~20 km, so that their tracks cannot be seen except for some special cases. Therefore,a muon (yellow) and a muon neutrino (cyan) might look as if they emerged from the interaction point directry.

In call cases,
p*-all.jpg show all particle tracks
p*-no-g.jpg show all but gamma ray tracks
p*-no-g-no-e.jpg show all but gamma ray and electron tracks.

p11-...jpg and p12-..jpg show the case for proton 1ry energy of 1 TeV with high threshold energy (1GeV). The pictures show tracks within a short distance so that we can see pions (green). The lateral scale is enlarged.

Ths directory listing is here